germanium transistors elec

2013/3/20NKT275 transistors are PNP Germanium, as are the AC126. If you plug AC126's into the BC108 layout it will not work, as the polarity is reversed, BC108 transistors are NPN Silicon transistors. you will need to reverse the electrolytic capacitor, and reverse your power and grounds. SpareElectronicParts Has new, new old stock, and obsolete transistors in stock, including hard to find germanium transistors used in restorations, projects, and effects pedals. We also have new old stock ECG and RCA SK transistors in stock and ready for delivery.


2006/8/1Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI), which combines high mobility of charge carriers with the advantages of an SOI structure, is an attractive integration platform for the future IC technology. Also, due to its low lattice mismatch with GaAs, III–V compounds transistors as well as optoelectronic functions can be integrated on GeOI.

2020/3/28But again, for fault finding you don't check transistors, you fault find the circuit - measuring the voltages on all transistors would be the place to start. The entire power amp is a kind of 'opamp', with DC feedback - with the output at +30V the feedback should be turning the bottom output transistor ON to bring it down - the voltage readings should tell you why it's not.

Among germanium transistors, many type numbers (see the list below) are possible candidates for FF circuits and How Transistors Changed Electronics Forever EAGLE Blog While germanium was the go-to material for the time in creating transistors, it had both its ups and downs.

the early transistors, based on germanium crystals to state-of-the-art very large scale integrated circuits. De-spite its relatively short span of about 100 years, elec-tronics progressed all the way through varying materials and paradigms. Then, in the 50's, the

I have now made three pedals from these transistors which have a good range of Hfe from lower around 70 to higher around 180 to 200. Make sure you have a way to test the transistors for gain because like with any germanium transistor there will be variation.

Vintage Radio and Electronics. Germanium Transistors

A E I and HIVAC GERMANIUM TRANSISTORS Type V Max P Max (mW) I Max IcBo uA Hfe f (Mhz) PNP/NPN Lead Out GT1 9 125-5 20 0.8 PNP B=Center C=White GT2 9 125-5 40 0.9 PNP ditto GT3 9 125-5 60 1 PNP ditto GT11 9 100-5 30 4 PNP ditto GT12

Silicon+Germanium vs Germanium+Germanium For anyone interested in making guitar pedals from scratch, the Shin-Ei Fuzz circuit has VERY FEW components (perhaps 10?), and I certainly found experimenting with salvaged transistors can give a big variety of tones on the cheap.

Electron Spin Resonance Transistors for Quantum Computing in Silicon-Germanium Heterostructures Rutger Vrijen 1, Eli Yablonovitch, Kang Wang, Hong Wen Jiang, Alex Balandin1 and David DiVincenzo2 1 University of California, Los Angeles, Electrical Engineering Dept., Los Angeles, California

2012/2/1Developed by both Regency and Texas Instruments, the Regency TR-1 used four germanium transistors, which allowed the small 22.5-V battery to last for more than 20 hours. It differed from other prototypes in that due to its circuit design, hand selection of transistors

An instrument was developed and built for measuring the dispersional distortions in optical fibers and cables on the basis of pulse widening. The instrument consists of a laser as a light source, a master oscillator, an optical transmitter, an optical shunt with mode mixer, an optical receiver, a fiber length measuring device, a smoothly adjustable delay line, and a stroboscopic oscillograph

Germanium Transistors Elec Electronics Wikipedia 2019-10-16electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal processinghe ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing.

In previous papers, shot noise of germanium junction p-n diodes and transistors was calculated and measured as dependent on frequency at smal current densities, where good coincidence was obtained. At high current densities, when the density of minority carriers becomes comparable with the density of dotation, measured shot noise was higher than calculated values.

this sample of I-type germanium. The mobility of a charged particle moving in an elec-tric field is by definition, p= s/E, where s is the velocity of the particle and E is the electric 6eld intensity. The average velocity of the holes is equal to the distance of the emitter I.

High Current or High Voltage that damages

Things like diodes and transistors also generally fail from heat-related issues. Take a diode and apply a voltage that exceeds its reverse breakdown voltage. When the diode enters reverse breakdown, it will let current flow through. Current flowing through the

Germanium vs. Silicon Transistors September 11, 2013 Overdrive/Distortion, Technical One facet of the design process here at Keeley Electronics comes down to selecting not just the highest quality components for use in our pedals, but the right component for the sounds we're trying to achieve.

As transistors shrink, not all device parameters scale at the same rate—and therein lies a potentially huge problem. In recent years, manufacturers have been able to reduce equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) more quickly than operating voltage. As a result, the

A low-temperature chemical vapor growth of Ge nanowires using Ga as seed material is demonstrated. The structural and chemical analysis reveals the homogeneous incorporation of ∼3.5 at. % Ga in the Ge nanowires. The Ga-containing Ge nanowires behave like

Spotlights Reviews Articles focused on active research areas, wherein an emphasis is placed on the relationship between the materials or interface synthesis, structure and/or properties and applications. View Spotlights Reviews from ACS Applied Electronic Materials

The germanium transistors were manufactured as the grown junction type, starting with huge crystals produced in this TI laboratory (Automation, Nov., 1955, pp.48-53). A short, but complete, account appeared in Radio Television News (Jan., 1955, p.54) and another in Radio-Electronics : pages 1, and 2 (Aug., 1956, pp.39-40).

2007/3/17Germanium transistors were pretty much obsoleted forty years ago, by silicon transistors. There is a far better range of silicon transistors, and generally they have far better specs than germanium transistors. The only reason you'd use a germanium transistor at this

Abstract:Germanium nanowires (GeNWs) with p- and n-dopants were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and were used to construct complementary field-effect transistors (FETs). Electrical transport and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS

2012/2/1Developed by both Regency and Texas Instruments, the Regency TR-1 used four germanium transistors, which allowed the small 22.5-V battery to last for more than 20 hours. It differed from other prototypes in that due to its circuit design, hand selection of transistors

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